Rione Terra, Pozzuoli, Naples – white marble II sec. AD
Usually dedicated to healing divinities, relief with ears symbolise the supplicant’s request for the god’s attention
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The Latin word chart, from the Greek χαρτης describes a sheet made by juxtaposing and stacking thin layers made from the papyrus stem. The papyrus was common in swampy areas and warm climates. The romans perfected the process for treating it, which the Egyptians used as early as 3000 BC, described by Pliny the Elder. Romans made lightweight sheet with smooth surface on which they could write easily with a calamus, a pointed reed, dipped in ink, which was made of water, sap, squid ink, and soot.Contact me for your tour at Pompeii and Herculaneum
When around the year 80BC Pompeii became a Roman colony grew both in terms of population and economy, and there was was a big boost in trade . The port guaranteed great wealth to the entire city, allowing the export of food products, textiles, cosmetics and more.
Economic activities of every kind were scattered throughout the city, especially along the “Via dell Abbondanza”, the main artery of the city so named for the relief of a cornucopia (horn symbol of abundance) on fountain near the Forum.
Often, thanks to the frescoes, the inscriptions, and the signs was possible to trace the names of the owners of the businesses located throughout the city, such us the termopolia (restaurants) of Vetutius Placidus and Asellina, and the fullonica of Sthephanus.
The professionals were usually grouped in corporations with a significant impact on the administration and policy of the city especially at the election time.
The most common occupations were those that took place within manufacturing plants and laboratories. There were bakers (pistores), the washers (fullones), numerous taverns (thermopolia), and textile and leather factories (officinae coriarorium). Some were itinerant traders or owners of shops, such as the greengrocers (pomarii). There were the owners of taverns (cauponae), the smiths (faber), barbers (tonsor), carpenters (lignarius), marble workers (marmorarius), goldsmiths (aurifex), the mosaicists (museiarii), peinters (pictores imaginarii or parietarii). Seems that the porters were powerful corporations (saccarii), the tenants (vindemiatores) and carters (cisiarii).
A well paid job, of which today we see the traces on the walls of ancient Pompeii, was the one of the scriptor, who painted on the walls in bright red letters posters announcing performances, sales, leases, or elections.
Considerable importance was covered by the agrimensores, highly skilled technicians able to measure and divide lands thanks to the use of theodolites very similar to those used by modern surveyors.
We should not forget the Lupae, who practiced in the Lupanares “the oldest profession in the world,” and their owners said Lenones.
Contact me for your tour at Pompeii.
Of all the ancient Rome tours, a visit to is a must while staying in . Nowhere else will you see history so well preserved. The story behind this famous place is laid bare as you wander around the streets between former houses and brothels. You will see the last moments in the lives of the people of Pompeii that were captured by the erupting volcano.
From Rome tourists can take two modern and comfortable Naples in 1h:10min. The trains are called “Italo” and “Frecciarossa“; return tickets cost between 80 and 100 euros. Sometimes there’s the possibility to get discounts booking a couple of months in advance.
From Naples the best way to get Pompeii or Herculaneum is by Circumvesuviana . The trip lasts 30 minutes; stop at “Pompei Villa dei Misteri” 100 meters away from the main gate of the excavations called “Porta Marina Superiore”. The return ticket cost 4, 50 euro.
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A brief tour with Emiliano Tufano at the Piscina Mirabilis.
Contact Emiliano http://www.pompeiin.com
In Miseno, on the north-west side of the gulf of Naples, there is the biggest Roman cistern of drinkable water ever built in Italy, realized during the Augustan period. Entirely excavated in the tufa rock, it has a capacity of 12.000 cubic meter of water, it’s 15 meters high, 72 m long and 25 m wide and it is covered by a vault, supported by 48 enormous cruciform pillars to form five long naves. The cistern was built to collect water for the Roman fleet docked in Miseno’s harbour. It represented the final tank of the Augustan aqueduct (Aqua Augusta) that, from its springs in Serino (100 kilometers away), brought water to Naples and the Phlegrean Fields.
The majority of the inhabitants of Pompeii died because of poisonous gases from the Mount Vesuvius. Their corpses were entirely buried by hot ashes raining from the sky. In 1870 the archaeologist Giuseppe Fiorelli used a technique based on filling the cavities generated where the corpses had decomposed with liquid plaster, in order to produce casts of the victims. Once the plaster had hardened, the surrounding soil was removed and the cast was brought to light. In Pompeii this technique was used to produce a number of molds of human bodies, animals and objects. Particularly interesting are the casts of the so called Field of the Fugitives, the entire family of the Casa del Bracciale d’oro, and the one of a man found in the Casa del Criptoportico on which are still visible the shoes he wore with the iron studs. On exhibition at the Antiquarium of Boscoreale is also the cast in epoxy resin made in 1984 on one of the victims found in the Villa of Lucius Crassius Tertius at Oplontis; this transparent cast allowed to spot jewels and coins possessed by the victim.