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The papyrus

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roman papyrus

The Latin word chart, from the Greek  χαρτης describes a sheet made by juxtaposing and stacking thin layers made from the papyrus stem. The papyrus was common in swampy areas and warm climates. The romans perfected the process for treating it, which the Egyptians used as early as 3000 BC, described by Pliny the Elder. Romans made lightweight sheet with smooth surface on which they could write easily with a calamus, a pointed reed, dipped in ink, which was made of water, sap, squid ink, and soot.

Herculaneum papyrus

The Herculaneum papyri are more than 1,800 papyri found in Herculaneum in the 18th century, carbonized[clarification needed] by the eruption of Mount Vesuvius in AD 79. After various methods of manipulation, a method was found to unroll and to read them.
The papyri, containing a number of Greek philosophical texts, come from a single personal library associated with the Epicurean philosopher and poet Philodemus, who has been identified as the author of 44 rolls.

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