The Latin word chart, from the Greek χαρτης describes a sheet made by juxtaposing and stacking thin layers made from the papyrus stem. The papyrus was common in swampy areas and warm climates. The romans perfected the process for treating it, which the Egyptians used as early as 3000 BC, described by Pliny the Elder. Romans made lightweight sheet with smooth surface on which they could write easily with a calamus, a pointed reed, dipped in ink, which was made of water, sap, squid ink, and soot.
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