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Pompeian Styles

The German archaeologist August Mau was the first scholar to classify the Pompeian painting in four styles.

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The first style, called structural style,  referring to the period from the third to the first century BC, was an imitation stucco, often in relief.  Significant examples of this style can be found in the House of the Faun in Pompeii and House Sannitica in Herculaneum.

Herculaneum_Wall_1.Style Casa-di-Sallustio-Pompeii

The second  style, described in detail by Vitruvius, called architectural style, was introduced in the first century  BC, it reworked some element  of the previous style. Inspired by the scene of the Hellenistic-Roman theater of shows structures and  columns, floral elements and animals and illusionistic realism. Examples II style are in the triclinium of the Villa Oplontis, in the Villa of the Mysteries, and the frescoes from the Villa Boscoreale, now preserved at Metropolitan Museum of New York and at the Archaeological Museum of Naples.

Oplontis_room15

The third style, called Pompeian style or ornamental, is caratherized by optical illusion, replaced by solid funds, usually in black, red or white, with a central miniaturistic paintings with mythological episode.  Some of the finest examples of the third style can be admired in the House of the Vetti and the House of Lucretius Fronto.

Oplontis_Caldarium_room8

The fourth style, called fantastic style, shows scenes of heroic-mythological and allegorical figures, painted in warm colors and depicting accessory elements in yellow gold. Many houses were redecorated after the violent earthquake of 62 AD. The House of the Tragic Poet, one of the Vetti and the Menander in Pompeii, the Shrine of the Augustals and the Casa dei Cervi at Herculaneum have some of the finest examples of decorations in the fourth style.

Casa_dei_vettii_ixion

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Wall painting in Pompeii

Pompeian styleThe first scholar to classify the Pompeian painting was the German archaeologist August Mau that stood out in four styles.

The FIRST STYLE, referring to the period from III to I century BC, of Greek origin, structural style or fouling, was an imitation of stucco, often in relief, a technique called opus quadratum, used to coat the marbles exterior walls of public buildings and religious in the Doric style. In the House of the Faun in Pompeii and in the Samnite House in Herculaneum are significant examples of this style.

I style - Herculaneum

I style – Herculaneum

The SECOND STYLE, called architectural style and described in detail by Vitruvius, was introduced in the I century BC, and reworking some elements of the earlier style. Inspired by the scenery of the Hellenistic-Roman theater, distributed in a bottom-shaped podium, on which rested in the middle of the faux wall structures, columns, niches, with characters represented megalografie-size or scale to a slightly more small, floral elements and animals, and seen in perspective with illusionistic realism final effect of a trompe l’oeil. Examples of the second style is found in the triclinium of the Villa Oplonti, in the Villa of the Mysteries, and in the frescoes from the Villa of Boscoreale, now housed at the Metropolitan Museum in New York and the Archaeological Museum of Naples.

2 style_Casa_di_Augusto3

II style – Augustus House

Over the last years of the century B.C. under the principate of Augustus with the THIRD STYLE, called Pompeian style or ornamentation, takes over the decorative. The optical illusion disappears, replaced by solid funding, usually in black, red or white, with a central miniature paintings depicting scenes of various kinds, mostly mythological, enclosed in kiosks or squares said pinakes. The walls were designed as split levels a lower base, divided by the median, through a dais decorated various ornaments. Typical were the candlesticks, the plant shoots and thyrsus. Some of the finest examples of the third style can be seen in the House of the Vetti and in the House of Lucretius Fronto.

III style_Fresco-Boscotrecase

From the age Claudia develops the FOURTH STYLE, defined fantastic style, in its first phase sees the return of the architectural elements of the second style, recreated amazing sleight of type. Scenes of heroic character-mythological and allegorical figures, painted with warmer colors representing the elements and accessories in yellow gold. In the Flavian period, so in the last years of the city of Pompeii, appear real scenes and great landscapes. It ‘s the most popular decoration in the Vesuvius area, since many houses were redecorated after the violent earthquake of 62 AD. C. The House of the Tragic Poet, one of the Vetti and Menander in Pompeii, Shrine of the Augustans and the House of the Stags at Herculaneum have some of the finest examples of decorations in the fourth style.

IV style_Herculaneum-Palestra

IV style – Herculaneum Gymnasium

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